Recent  Publications of TLSIIG Authors


Eitel, J. U. H., Hofle, B., Vierling, L. A., Abellan, A., Asner, G. P., Deems, J. S., Glennie, C. L., Joerg, P. C., LeWinter, A. L., Magney, T. S., Mandlburger, G., Morton D. C., Muller, J., and Vierling, K. T. (2016). Beyond 3-D: The new spectrum of lidar applications for earth and ecological sciences. Remote Sensing of Environment 186: 372-392.

Kaasalainen, S., Nevalainen, O., Hakala, T., and Anttila, K (2016). Incidence angle dependency of leaf vegetation indices from hyperspectral lidar measurements.  Photogrammetric–Fernerkundung–Geoinformation, vol. 2016, no. 2, pp. 75-84.

Li, Z., Jupp, D. L. B., Strahler, A. H., Schaaf, C. B., Howe, G., Hewawasam, K., Douglas, E., Chakrabarti, S., Cook T. A., Paynter, I., Saenz, E. J., and Schaefer, M. (2016). Radiometric calibration of a dual-wavelength, full-waveform terrestrial lidar. Sensors, vol. 16, pp. 313-336. DOI: 10.3390/s16030313

Lin, Y., and Herold, M. (2016). Tree species classification based on explicit tree structure feature parameters derived from static terrestrial last scanning data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 216, pp. 105-114. DOI:

Paynter, I., Saenz, E., Genest, D., Peri, F., Erb, A., Li, Z., Wiggin, K., Muir, J., Raumonen, P., Schaaf, E. S., Strahler, A., and Schaaf C. (2016) Observing ecosystems with lightweight, rapid-scanning terrestrial lidar scanners. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 174–189. DOI: 10.1002/rse2.26

Schaefer, M. T., and Lamb, D. W. (2016). A combination of plant NDVI and LiDAR measurements improve the estimation of pasture biomass in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea var. Fletcher). Remote Sensing, vol. 8, pp. 109-118. DOI: 10.3390/rs8020109

Schofield, L. A., Danson, F. M., Entwistle, N. S., Gaulton, R., and Hancock, S. (2016). Radiometric calibration of a dual-wavelength terrestrial laser scanner using neural networks. Remote Sensing Letters. vol. 2. no. 4. pp. 299-308. DOI: 10.1080/2150704X.2015.1134843


Douglas, E. S., Martel, J., Howe, G., Hewawasam, K., Marshall, R. A., Schaaf, C. L., Cook, T. A., Newnham, G. J., Strahler, A., and Chakrabarti, S. (2015). Finding leaves in the forest: The Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 776-780, DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2014.2361812.

Hancock, S., Armston, J., Li, Z., Gaulton, R., Lewis, P., Disney, M., Danson, F. M., Strahler, A., Schaaf, C., Anderson, K., and Gaston, K. J. (2015). Waveform lidar over vegetation: An evaluation of inversion methods for estimating return energy. Remote Sensing of Environment. vol. 164. pp. 208-224. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.04.013.

Howe, G. A., Hewawasam, K., Douglas, E. S., Martel, J., Li, Z., Strahler, A. , Schaff, C., Cook, T. A., and Chakrabarti, S., 2015, Capabilities and performance of DWEL, the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® lidar, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, vol. 9., no. 1, 13 pp. DOI: 10.1117/1.JRS.9.095979

Newnham, G. J., Armston, J. D., Calders, K., Disney, M. I., Lovell, J. L., Schaaf, C. B., Strahler, A. H., and Danson, F. M.. (2015). Terrestrial Laser Scanning for plot-scale forest management. Curr Forestry Rep. vol. 1. no. 4. pp. 239-251. DOI: 10.1007/s40725-015-0025-5.

Puttonen, E., Hakala, T., Nevalainen, O., Kaasalainen, S., Krooks, A., Karjalainen, M., Anttila, K. (2015). Artificial target detection with a hyperspectral LiDAR over 26-h measurement. Opt. Eng. vol. 54. no. 1. DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.54.1.013105.

Raumonen, P., Casella, E., Calders, K., Murphy, S., Akerblom, M., and Kaasalainen, M. (2015). Massive-scale tree modelling from TLS data. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. vol. 2. pp. 189-196. DOI: 10.5194/isprsannals-II-3-W4-189-2015.

Woodgate, W., Disney, M., Armston, J. D., Jones, S. D., Suarez, L., Hill, M. J., Wilkes, P., Soto-Berelov, M., Haywood, A., and Mellor, A. (2015). An improved theoretical model of canopy gap probability for Leaf Area Index estimation in woody ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 358, pp. 303-320. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.09.030.

Woodgate, W., Jones, S. D., Suarez, L., Hill, M. J., Armston, J. D., Wilkes, P., Soto-Berelov, M., Haywood, A., and Mellor, A. (2015). Understanding the variability in ground-based methods for retrieving canopy openness, gap fraction, and leaf area index in diverse forest systems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. vol. 205. pp. 83-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.02.012.


Calders, K., Armston, J., Newham, G., Herold, M., and Goodwin, N. (2014). Implications of sensor configuration and topography on vertical plant profiles derived from terrestrial LiDAR. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology vol. 194, 104-117,

Calders, K., Newnham, G., Burt, A., Murphy, S., Raumonen, P., Herold, M., Culvenor, D., Avitabile, V., Disney, M., Armston, J., and Kaasalainen, M. (2014). Nondestructive estimates of above-ground biomass using terrestrial laser scanning. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. vol. 6. no. 2. pp. 198-208. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12301.

Danson, F. M., Gaulton, R., Armitage, R. P., Disney, M., Gunawan, O., Lewis, P., Pearson, G., Ramirez, F. A. (2014). Developing a dual-wavelength full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner to characterize forest canopy structure. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. vol. 198-199. pp. 7-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.07.007.

Hackenberg, J., Morhart, C., Sheppard, J., Spiecker, H., and Disney,
M. I. (2014) Highly accurate tree models derived from terrestrial
laser scan data – a method description, Forests (OPEN ACCESS), Special
Issue: LiDAR and Other Remote Sensing Applications in Mapping and
Monitoring of Forests Structure and Biomass), vol. 5, 1069-1105;

Hancock, S., Essery, R., Reid, T., Carle, J., Baxter, R., Rutter, N., and Huntley, B. (2014). Characterizing forest gap fraction with terrestrial lidar and photography: An examination of relative limitations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology vol. 189-190, 105-114.

Hofman, J., Bartholomeus, H., Calders, K., Van Wittenberghe, S., Wuyts, K., and Samson, R. (2014). On the relation between tree crown morphology and particulate matter deposition on urban tree leaves: A ground-based LiDAR approach. Atmospheric Environment. vol. 99. pp. 130-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.031.

Kaasalainen, S., Krooks, A., Liski, J., Raumonen, P., Kaartinen, H., Kaasalainen, M., Puttonen, E., Anttila, K., and Mäkipää, R. (2014). Change detection of tree biomass with terrestrial laser scanning and quantitative structure modelling. Remote Sensing vol. 6(5), 3906-3922.

Krooks, A., Kaasalainen, S., Kankare, V., Joensuu, M., Raumonen, P., and Kaasalainen, M. (2014). Predicting tree structure from tree height using terrestrial laser scanning and quantitative structure models. Silva Fennica vol. 48(2), 1125.

Smith, A., Astrup, R., Raumonen, P., Liski, J., Krooks, A., Kaasalainen, S., Akerblom, M., and Kaasalainen, M. (2014). Tree root system characterization and volume estimation by terrestrial laser scanning and quantitative structure modeling. Forests, vol. 5, pp. 3274–3294; doi:10.3390/f5123274.


Armston, J., Disney, M., Lewis, P., Scarth, P., Phinn, S., Bunting, P., Lucas, R., and Goodwin, N. (2013). Direct retrieval of canopy gap probability using airborne waveform lidar. Remote Sensing of Environment. vol. 134, 24-38.

Brolly, G. (2013). Locating and Parameter Retrieval of Individual Trees from
Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data. PhD thesis, University of West Hungary, Faculty of Forestry,
Sopron (Hungary), 104 pp.

Brolly, G.,  Király, G., and Czimber, K. (2013). Mapping forest regeneration from terrestrial laser scan. Acta Sylvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, vol. 9, 135-146.

Calders, K., Newnham, G., Herold, M., Murphy, S., Culvenor, D., Raumonen, P., Burt, A., Armston, J., Avitabile, V., and Disney M. (2013). Estimating above ground biomass from terrestrial laser scanning in Australian eucalypt open forest. Proceedings SilviLaser 2013, October 9-11, 2013, Beijing, China, Paper Number SL2013-021, 7 pp.

Gaulton, R., Danson, F. M., Ramirez, F. A., and Gunawan, O. (2013). The potential of dual-wavelength laser scanning for estimating vegetation moisture content. Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 132, 32-39.

Ramirez, F. A., Armitage, R. P., and Danson, F. M. (2013). Testing the application of laser scanning to measure forest canopy gap fraction. Remote Sensing vol. 5, 3037-3056.

Raumonen, P, Kaasalainen, M, Åkerblom, M, Kaasalainen, S, Kaartinen,
H, Vastaranta, M, Holopainen, M, Disney, M. I. and Lewis, P (2013)
Comprehensive Quantitative Tree Models From Terrestrial Laser Scanner
Data, Remote Sensing, 5(2), 491-520; doi:10.3390/rs5020491

Yang, X. Y.,  Strahler, A. H.,  Schaaf, C. B.,  Jupp, D. L. B., Yao, T.,  Zhao, F.,  Wang, Z. S.,  Culvenor, D. S.,  Newnham, G. J.,  Lovell, J. L.,  Dubayah, R.,  Woodcock, C. E., and Ni-Meister, W. (2013). Three-dimensional forest reconstruction and structural parameter retrievals using a terrestrial full-waveform lidar instrument (Echidna®). Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 135,  36-51.

Zhao, F., Yang, X. Y., Strahler, A. H., Schaaf, C. L., Yao, T., Wang, Z. S., Roman, M. O., Woodcock, C. E., Ni-Meister, W., Jupp, D. L. B., Lovell, J. L., Culvenor, D. S., Newnham, G. J., Tang, H., and Dubayah, R. (2013). A comparison of foliage profiles in the Sierra National Forest obtained with a full-waveform under-canopy EVI lidar system with the foliage profiles obtained with an airborne full-waveform LVIS lidar system. Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 136, 330-341.


Moskal, L. M., and Zhang, G. (2012). Retrieving forest inventory variables with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in urban heterogeneous forest. Remote Sensing vol. 4, 1-20.

Zhao, F., Strahler, A. H., Schaaf, C. L., Yao, T., Yang, X. Y., Wang, Z. S., Schull, M. A., Roman, M. O., Woodcock, C. E., Olofsson, P., Ni-Meister, W., Jupp, D. L. B., Lovell, J. L., Culvenor, D. S., and Newnham, G. J. (2012). Measuring gap fraction, element clumping index and LAI in Sierra Forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar. Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 125, 73-79.


Beland, M., Widlowski, J.-L., Fournier, R. A., Coté, J.-F., and Verstraete, M. M. (2011). Estimating leaf area distribution in savanna trees from terrestrial LiDAR measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology vol. 151, 1252-1266.

 Lovell, J. L., Jupp, D. L. B., Newnham, G. J., and Culvenor, D. S. (2011). Measuring tree stem diameters using intensity point profiles from ground-based scanning lidar from a fixed viewpoint. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing vol. 66, 46-55.

Yao, T., Yang, X. Y., Zhao, F., Wang, Z. S., Zhang, Q. L., Jupp, D., Lovell, J., Culvenor, D., Newnham, G., Ni-Meister, W., Schaaf, C., Woodcock, C., Wang, J. D., Li, X. W., and Strahler, A. (2011). Measuring forest structure and biomass in New England forest stands using Echidna ground-based lidar. Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 115, 2965-2974.

Zhao, F., Yang, X. Y., Schull, M. A., Roman-Colon, M. O., Yao, T., Wang, Z. S., Zhang, Q. L., Jupp, D. L. B., Lovell, J. L., Culvenor, D. S., Newnham, G. J., Richardson, A. D., Ni-Meister, W., Schaaf, C. L., Woodcock, C. E., and Strahler, A. H. (2011). Measuring effective leaf area index, foliage profile, and stand height in New England forest stands using a full-waveform ground-based lidar. Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 115, 2954-2964.



G. Brolly, G. Király (2009). Algorithms for stem mapping by means of terrestrial laser scanning. Acta Sylvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, vol. 5, 119-130.